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What Is Hypertension?What Are The Risk Factors For Hypertension?


what is hypertension

Table of Contents

1.What is Hypertension

2. What Are The Risk Factors For Hypertension?

3.Why Is Hypertension An Important Issue In Low- And Middle-Income Countries?

4.Facts About What Are Common Symptoms Of Hypertension? That You Didn'T Know

5.What Is The WHO Response For Hypertension?


Findings from a related study suggest that lowering systolic blood pressure below 120 reduces the risk of mild cognitive impairment, and an analysis of several large, long-term studies of adults over 55 found that treating high blood pressure was associated with a lower risk of Alzheimer's disease. risk of silent disease. Hypertension (hypertension) is a common condition in which the long-term pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries is high enough to eventually lead to health problems, such as heart disease. Hypertension (HAP or high blood pressure) occurs when blood pressure (the force of blood against the walls of blood vessels) is persistently high. Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a condition in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher-than-normal pressures.


Systolic blood pressure (the highest number) is the force with which your heart pumps blood throughout your body. The highest number is systolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure on the walls of blood vessels when the heart contracts. The bottom number is diastolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure in the blood vessels between beats when the heart is at rest. The second number (diastolic pressure) represents the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart rests between beats.


The first number (systolic blood pressure) represents the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. The second or lower number measures the strength of blood in your arteries as your heart relaxes between beats. The lower number is the smaller of the two, called diastolic blood pressure. This can mean abnormally high systolic blood pressure, but normal or low diastolic blood pressure, known as isolated systolic hypertension.


In most patients with known essential hypertension, increased blood flow resistance (total peripheral resistance) accounts for hypertension, while cardiac output remains normal. It is not known whether arterial vasoconstriction plays a role in hypertension. Excessive pressure hardens the arteries, reducing blood and oxygen flow to the heart. When blood pressure remains high over time, it can cause the heart to work faster and work overtime, ultimately leading to serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure and kidney failure.


Among other complications, high blood pressure can cause serious heart damage. Severe high blood pressure can cause fatigue, nausea, vomiting, confusion, anxiety, chest pain, and muscle tremors. Headache, fatigue, confusion, dizziness, nausea, vision problems, chest pain, difficulty breathing, irregular heartbeat, and blood in the urine are all symptoms of high blood pressure. However, most people with high blood pressure do not experience any symptoms.


This type of high blood pressure develops over time with no identifiable cause. This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends to come on suddenly and lead to higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. In the long run, high blood pressure can lead to health problems, including heart disease. Complications arise directly from hypertension (intracerebral hemorrhage, retinopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, aneurysms, and ruptured vessels), atherosclerosis (increased vascular resistance in coronary, cerebral, and renal vessels), and decreased blood flow and ischemia (myocardial infarction, thrombosis). cerebral infarction and nephrosclerosis).



Secondary hypertension is associated with underlying disorders that may be of renal, neurological, or endocrine origin; examples of such disorders include Bright's disease (glomerulonephritis, inflammation of the urinary structures of the kidneys), cerebral atherosclerosis, and Cushing's syndrome symptoms (hyperadrenal glands). High blood pressure can also be caused by tumors or other abnormalities that cause the adrenal glands (small glands above the kidneys) to secrete too much hormones, which can increase blood pressure. Having high blood pressure during pregnancy may increase your risk of developing high blood pressure later in life. Most people with high blood pressure are unaware of the problem because they may have no warning signs or symptoms.


It is the most common form of hypertension in the elderly and can lead to serious health problems, as well as shortness of breath with mild exertion and dizziness when standing or falling too quickly. Isolated systolic hypertension, the most common form of hypertension in the elderly, is treated in the same way as normal high blood pressure, but more than one type of blood pressure medication may be needed. Combinations, extended-release or once-daily drugs can be used to reduce the burden of multiple drugs and to provide drugs on a regular basis. Once started, the drug should be used until your doctor tells you to stop.


As the amount of blood passing through the blood vessels increases, so does the pressure on the walls of the arteries. The increased pressure in the blood vessels causes the heart muscle to contract faster and more forcefully than a healthy heart should. The higher the heart rate, the harder the heart has to work with each contraction, and the more stress the arteries are put on.


Lack of physical activity also increases the risk of being overweight. This can be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, such as not getting enough regular physical activity. The same goes for people who have heart-healthy habits and feel good about themselves.


But if left untreated, it can increase the risk of serious problems such as heart attack and stroke. This can lead to serious health complications and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke and even death. It can affect other parts of the body and cause seizures (eclampsia).


It indicates the pressure in the arteries as the heart beats and pumps blood. This is a reading of the pressure in the arteries between heart beats. In people 18 years of age and older, hypertension is defined as a measurement of systolic or diastolic blood pressure that is consistently higher than the generally accepted normal value (this is more than 129 or 139 mm Hg systolic, 89 mm Hg diastolic depending on the recommendations ).


In the seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertension (JNC7) published in 2003 [27], the term prehypertension was used for blood pressure in the range of 120-139 mmHg. Systolic blood pressure or 80–89 mmHg. diastolic blood pressure, while the European Hypertension Guidelines (2007) [88] and British Hypertension Society (BHS) IV (2004) [89] use optimal, normal and high categories to differentiate between systolic and 90 mmHg mm of pressure mercury. Diastolic blood pressure. Essential Hypertension Essential hypertension is also called essential hypertension. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and aneurysms.


According to the US National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES), 70% of adults aged 65 and over have hypertension. Serious complications such as stroke, heart attack and kidney failure are also more common in people of African descent.


Overweight The heavier you are, the more blood you need to deliver oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. The heavier you are, the more blood you need to deliver oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. The longer the blood flow is blocked, the more damage to the heart.


Heart failure, where your heart cannot send enough blood and oxygen to other organs. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to the heart is blocked and the heart muscle begins to die without enough oxygen.



What Are The Risk Factors For Hypertension?.Why Is Hypertension An Important Issue In Low- And Middle-Income Countries?


 What Are The Risk Factors For Hypertension

The results of this study showed that similar outcomes for healthy lifestyle factors were associated with lower risk of hypertension and lower blood pressure levels (Supplementary Table 5). What's more, the study found that lifestyle and genetic factors have a combined effect on high blood pressure risk and blood pressure levels, meaning that the higher the genetic risk and the less healthy the lifestyle, the greater the tendency to increase blood pressure. Similar to previous studies (20, 44). In each GHR risk group, an unhealthy lifestyle was associated with a higher risk of hypertension and higher levels of SBP and DBP, implying that a healthy lifestyle can compensate for genetically induced hypertension. After adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic factors, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, national income, and family history of CVD, the associations with mortality risk, CVD, and CAD were attenuated, but equally significant.

Other concomitant factors of hypertension reported in this study include increased body mass index and increased waist circumference [19], dyslipidemia [16, 22], and smoking [22]. Modifiable risk factors include an unhealthy diet (excessive salt intake, high saturated and trans fat intake, low intake of fruits and vegetables), physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and being overweight or obese. Unmodifiable risk factors include family history of hypertension, age 65+, and comorbidities such as diabetes or kidney disease. It is a risk factor for many diseases, including kidney and cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and heart disease.

Boston, Massachusetts. Health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are ill-prepared for the growing number of people with high blood pressure, with more than two-thirds of those affected untreated, according to a new study by scientists. in Harvard, TH The World Health Organization (WHO) is helping countries reduce hypertension as a public health problem.

At the population level, several interventions and strategies are effective in reducing the risk of hypertension. By providing telehealth services, these approaches could partially overcome the barriers created by the limited health infrastructure for managing hypertension in low- and middle-income countries. Better and more equitable targeting of hypertension screening and treatment requires a better understanding of the sociodemographic groups that face the greatest barriers to accessing these services.

We used random-effects meta-analyses to estimate group-by-group estimates of general hypertension prevalence by World Bank region and national income group. Due to the low risk of sampling bias in <50% of the included studies, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine whether the observed heterogeneity in the prevalence of hypertension was partly influenced by differences in sampling in the education population; our analysis showed no statistical A significant effect on schooling (coefficient + 0.11 [95% CI -0.04-0.26], P = 0.14).

The researchers found that Canada, Peru and Switzerland had some of the lowest prevalence rates of hypertension in the world in 2019, while some of the highest rates were in the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Paraguay among women and in Hungary, Paraguay and Poland among women. people. Another study used data from 90 countries around the world and found that between 2000 and 2010, the proportion of people with hypertension receiving treatment increased in both high- and low- and middle-income countries. they expanded98. The 2019 study used national data from 44 low- and middle-income countries, and found that only 30% of people with hypertension received medication, and only 10% had their blood pressure controlled below the hypertension threshold 92. In another 2019 study, used national data on the treatment of hypertension from the 1970s in 12 high-income countries95.


For the study, the researchers used a cascade treatment approach that looked at the number of people with hypertension who were screened, diagnosed, treated, and screened to determine how well health care systems around the world were treating people with hypertension. A systematic review was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among urban populations in Southeast Asian countries. We used data from a cohort of Mexicans over 50 years of age in two waves of the WHO global study on aging and adult health (SAGE), collected in 2009 and 2014.

Our goal was to estimate the prevalence and socioeconomic distribution of undiagnosed, untreated, and uncontrolled hypertension in older Mexican adults for at least five years, and to estimate the frequency of transitions from these conditions to diagnosis, treatment, and testing. The aim of our systematic review was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors in the urban population of SEA countries. This study provides current and updated estimates reflecting the burden of hypertension in low- and middle-income countries and evidence that hypertension remains an important public health problem in sociodemographic subgroups. Widening disparities in the prevalence of hypertension suggest that hypertension remains a global public health problem that requires urgent addressing, especially in low- and middle-income countries (5).

The researchers' models showed that the number of people aged 30 to 79 with hypertension increased globally from about 650 million in 1990 to nearly 1.3 billion in 2019. This represents a marked increase over the decade driven by the dramatic increase in hypertension. in less wealthy countries, according to a new study. This increase is mainly due to an increase in risk factors for hypertension in these populations. Estimates of the prevalence of hypertension by region, national income group, and institution are shown in the figure.

Populations around the world are ageing rapidly, with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) experiencing some of the most dramatic growth.

1. This demographic transition is closely related to the epidemiological transition from infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

2 Hypertension is a key risk factor for noncommunicable diseases, and its prevalence is increasing, likely due to development, urbanization and lifestyle changes. This is particularly evident in low- and middle-income countries, although these differences may be due in part to differences in survey design and measurement. To fill this significant gap in our understanding, this study looked at the prevalence and possible determinants of hypertension and effective treatment in a representative sample of more than 35,000 older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study investigated factors associated with the prevalence, awareness, and treatment of hypertension in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults with CML. Most studies are limited to focusing on a single concept of stress and its measurement, which can lead to inconsistent results. 2,11 In addition, prospective data on the association of psychological stress with the development of cardiovascular disease and mortality in low- and middle-income populations are scarce in middle-income countries. 1,3,12 Using data from the Prospective Urban-Rural Epidemiology Study (PURE), a large prospective cohort study in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, we assessed a combination of psychosocial factors. Measured with CVD and all-cause mortality.


Facts About What Are Common Symptoms Of Hypertension? That You Didn'T Know


Women often complain of sudden shortness of breath with or without chest pressure, malaise, and nausea with or without vomiting. Some men experience chest tightness, nausea, with or without vomiting, and cold or clammy skin. While this can occur in both men and women, women are more likely to experience shortness of breath. Shortness of breath, with or without chest pain, is a common sign of an asymptomatic heart attack.


Waking up in a cold sweat, feeling nauseous, and vomiting can be symptoms of the flu, but they can also be signs of an asymptomatic heart attack. Chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath, and palpitations are some of the most common signs in people with symptomatic hypertension. Typical symptoms are dizziness, lightheadedness, blurred vision and shoulder pain. Atypical symptoms include back pain and lower body discomfort.


It is also important to know that the signs of a heart attack can differ between men and women. In most cases, signs of hypertension are difficult to detect, making diagnosis and management difficult. Although there are some risk factors that can contribute to hypertension, such as smoking, high stress levels, poor diet, insufficient exercise, and genetic factors, the symptoms of hypertension are not that simple.


But this type of high blood pressure should be taken seriously, even if it is the product of neural activity. This may be because people with white coat hypertension are more prone to anxiety.


Unlike other diseases, you can't rely on a symptom to tell you that your blood pressure is dangerously high, so it's important to try to keep your blood pressure under control, especially if your doctor suggests you do. Hypertension, which doctors technically call hypertension, can develop slowly and harm your body over many years; and over time, if high blood pressure causes enough harm, it can increase the risk of a stroke or heart attack. But that doesn't mean you're out of luck when it comes to diagnosing and treating hypertension. Those who suffer from it have a higher risk of developing health problems, including stroke and heart failure, so it's important to monitor your blood pressure and seek treatment if it starts to rise to dangerous levels.


High blood pressure is sometimes called the "silent killer" because it often has no warning signs but can lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart attack or stroke. Hypertension (hypertension) is a common condition in which the long-term pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries is high enough to eventually lead to health problems, such as heart disease. When someone is diagnosed with conventional (systemic) high blood pressure, it means that the blood pressure puts too much pressure on the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a type of high blood pressure in the lungs that occurs when the walls of the arteries leading from the right side of the heart to the lungs narrow and become stiff.


As a result, pressure in the lungs rises, leading to symptoms such as fatigue and shortness of breath. Over time, high blood pressure can damage several important organs, including the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Hypertension adds a potentially lethal burden to vital organs such as the heart, kidneys, and brain.


This type of high blood pressure, called secondary hypertension, tends to appear suddenly and cause higher blood pressure than primary hypertension. If these surges occur frequently, the heart and blood vessels can begin to become damaged, similar to high blood pressure. Stress and anxiety also make people vulnerable to major risk factors associated with chronic high blood pressure, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and binge eating.


Now that the normal blood pressure range has dropped, 14% more people can be diagnosed with hypertension in the United States. Dr. Mehta claims that people who are overweight may be two to six times more likely to develop hypertension.


Most likely, you will be advised to change your lifestyle to a healthier one (see the Smarter Choices box). Your doctor may suggest a different screening schedule if you have other health problems. If you experience heart palpitations and sweaty hands during the examination, be sure to let your doctor know so they can take this into account when evaluating your blood pressure readings.


According to the Singapore Health Promotion Council, 95% of cases of hypertension are unknown. African American men and women have higher rates of hypertension than any other racial or ethnic group.4 These people are also more likely to be hospitalized with hypertension.10 Experts believe that these health differences are associated with higher rates of obesity and diabetes.


Just under 25% of Singaporeans between the ages of 30 and 69 suffer from hypertension. A large study found that this condition is present in 18.2% of people aged 65 and over.


Serious complications such as stroke, heart attack and kidney failure are also more common in people of African descent. Diabetes can damage arteries and harden the walls of blood vessels. This can lead to narrowing of the arteries and increase the risk of heart disease. This can cause the heart muscle to thicken and weaken over time.


High blood flow can damage blood vessels, making them weak, stiff, or stiff. Pulmonary arterial hypertension, on the other hand, is much less common and has the potential to be much more fatal. According to one of the authors, Dr. Krasyukov, in the ICORD information card found here, people with SCI may be prone to high blood pressure fluctuations due to changes in blood vessels that cannot push blood to the heart.


The risk is higher for people taking medications and those with diseases that affect the nervous system. Diabetes and Parkinson's disease are examples of increased risk in older adults. It's so common that even if you don't have it now, there's a chance you'll develop it at some point in your life. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD as it is commonly known.


The pain you feel with a heart attack may be much less severe and not even very painful. If you are having a heart attack, you already know to call 9-1-1 immediately. The good news is that you can prepare yourself by knowing these 4 hidden signs of a heart attack. If you feel like you've just run a marathon but just climbed the stairs, this could be a sign that your heart is unable to pump blood to the rest of your body.


What Is The WHO Response For Hypertension?


Further univariate analysis showed that age, sex, cTnI, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, history of hypertension and diabetes were significantly associated with the clinical severity of COVID-19. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, the presence of cTnI, a history of arterial hypertension and diabetes were independent predictors of disease severity. As a follow-up study of the well-designed losartan intervention for the hypertension reduction endpoint (LIFE) study, Fossum et al. described all-cause mortality and cardiovascular endpoints in a cohort of 9193 hypertensive patients based on their level of physical activity. never exercise, exercise <= 30 minutes twice a week, exercise> 30 minutes twice a week) 35,36 The average follow-up time was 4.8 years. In contrast, of 320 patients with positive echocardiography during exercise without hypertensive response, 39 (12%) patients did not have significant coronary artery disease.


Serum levels of components of the renin-angiotensin system, including adrenocorticotropic hormone, renin, angiotensin II (Ang II), and aldosterone, were detected in 28 of 190 patients without a history of hypertension . Compared with the healthy control group, AngII levels were higher in 190 patients without previous hypertension, among which 16 patients (8.42%) had elevated blood pressure to the diagnostic criteria of hypertension during hospitalization, cTnI, procalcitonin levels were significantly increased, Angiotensin-II (Ang II) blood pressure is higher than normal. In this study, RAS laboratory results showed elevated Ang II levels in most patients with no history of hypertension.



Systolic blood pressure measured during mild to moderate exercise has been shown to predict mask hypertension with high specificity in HRE patients [27]. As previous studies have suggested, the hyperresponsiveness of exercise to blood pressure is not an innocuous phenomenon, but whether HRE should be treated in individuals without arterial hypertension remains controversial. Several studies have shown that exercise overreaction to blood pressure (BP) can predict the development of hypertension and end-organ damage, but others have not.


Thus, the response of blood pressure to exercise has a predictive value for future arterial hypertension. The dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and mortality in hypertension should further stimulate hypertensive patients to maintain high levels of physical activity. We suggest that all healthcare professionals recommend that hypertensive patients be physically active and increase their activity level if it is low.


Physicians and other healthcare professionals should encourage hypertensive and prehypertensive patients to be physically active at the patient's level. Current guidelines recommend that all people, including those with hypertension, engage in moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for at least 150 minutes per week or 75 minutes per week of high-intensity exercise. People should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, tobacco, and unhealthy foods to cope with stress, as these can contribute to high blood pressure and complications of hypertension. For example, a low-fat diet and smoking cessation will reduce the damaging effects of hypertension on arteries.


You should never change the dose of your high blood pressure medication or stop taking it without talking to your doctor. Any drug treatment for hypertension should be carefully monitored by a physician.


But hypertension doesn't cause any symptoms, so you may be less motivated to take your blood pressure medication every day, allowing your body to bear the damage caused by hypertension over time. Excessive pressure can harden in the arteries, reducing the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. Hypertension gradually damages the walls of large arteries (aorta, carotid arteries) and smaller ones (cerebral, coronary, renal, retinal) and forces the heart to work harder to pump blood around the body. Over time, uncontrolled hypertension damages the arteries, causing them to stiffen.


This narrowing makes hypertension worse because the heart has to pump harder. This makes the heart work harder to get blood through the aorta to the rest of the body. When you gain weight, the amount of blood flowing through your body increases. Being overweight also increases your heart rate and makes it difficult for blood to move through your blood vessels.


Higher systolic pressure is important because it can further stiffen the arteries. Systolic is the maximum pressure in the arteries that occurs during the work of the heart. Systolic pressure is indicated on the sphygmomanometer and recorded.


The second number (diastolic pressure) represents the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart rests between beats. The first number (systolic blood pressure) represents the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart contracts or beats. Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure on the arteries when the heart is relaxed and filled with blood.


Systolic blood pressure (BP) typically rises with exercise because during exercise, cardiac output increases in response to the increased oxygen demand of working muscles by increasing sympathetic tone.


However, symptoms may be felt when blood pressure levels are extremely high during the first rise in blood pressure or during a hypertensive crisis. High blood pressure usually causes no symptoms because the body's organs can withstand high blood pressure for long periods of time.


Among other complications, hypertension can cause serious damage to the heart. Severe hypertension can cause fatigue, nausea, vomiting, confusion, anxiety, chest pain, and muscle tremors. Without detection, high blood pressure can damage the heart, blood vessels, and other organs such as the kidneys.


A hypertensive emergency is when blood pressure is so high that organ damage may occur. In the blood of people with high blood pressure, there are often high levels of inflammation, which can be fatal if infected with SARS-CoV-2.


The scientists then used single cell sequencing techniques to study the immune response of hypertensive patients to COVID-19. “After exposure to the virus, these patients were more likely to develop an increased immune response, which was associated with severe progression of COVID-19 disease. This most likely explains the increased immune system response and the more severe course of the disease.


The World Health Organization (WHO) is helping countries reduce hypertension as a public health problem. The aim of the project is to improve the management of hypertension and reduce the associated morbidity and mortality by developing and implementing a framework for standardizing the pharmacological treatment of hypertension worldwide. Million HeartsExternal(r) can also provide a framework to tackle global cardiovascular disease (CVD) and provide translatable approaches to reduce the global burden of CVD, including reducing hypertension.


Also included are educational materials for patients and healthcare professionals, as well as clinical tools for managing hypertension and improving treatment adherence. The primary goal of the Projects Toolkit is to provide healthcare professionals and clinic administrators with the tools they need to improve blood pressure management in the clinical population.


Proper treatment of secondary hypertension can often control both the underlying disease and hypertension, reducing the risk of serious complications, including heart disease, kidney failure, and stroke. The biggest risk factor for developing secondary hypertension is having a medical condition that can cause high blood pressure, such as problems with the kidneys, arteries, heart, or endocrine system. Many different diseases and health conditions can cause secondary hypertension. Complications Long-term hypertension can cause complications due to atherosclerosis, in which plaque forms on the walls of blood vessels, causing them to narrow.


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